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Voir la réalité à partir du délire

Mercredi 16 mars 2011

Pāṇḍavapuraṃ est la reconstruction par la littérature d'une situation canonique de la Māyā: la réalité (les choses du Kerala, les gens de l'entourage de l'héroïne) est enchâssée dans la fiction. Nous sommes ainsi conduits à opérer une révolution du regard et considérer la réalité à partir du délire. La Mâyâ? De petits faits vrais enchâssés dans la fiction.

L'incipit est typique d'un roman «réaliste»

Evénement raconté dans un discours rapporté (monologue intérieur)

Sētu, Pāṇḍavapuraṃ (1979), texte malayalam page 9

innale rātriyil, pativuḷḷa maṯṯoru pēṭisvapnattinuvēṇṭi kāttukiṭakke, apūrvamāya cila ōrmakaḷuṭe niṟappakiṭṭuḷḷa kuppiccillukal citaṟiccukoṇṭụ pāṇḍavapuraṃ eṉṯe manassilēkkụ kaṭannu vannu.

"Last night, as I lay waiting for the usual nightmare pēṭisvapnaṃ, Pandavapuram came into my mind manassilēkkụ, scattering the many-coloured glass-pieces of extraordinary memories."

pativụ = custom, routine, the usual practice

maṯṯoru = un (oru) autre (maṯṯụ)

L'amant visiteur vient déréaliser le réel dans le délire de l'héroïne

Texte malayalam, pages 58–59

pandavapuram

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[Dialogue, style direct]

"Devi..." his voice was tender. "I have a request. I can bear it if you don't believe me. But please do not misunderstand me. I told you right at the beginning that I did not have any ulterior motive. You have come to me defeated and weary, in search of shelter, so many times, when I could have been maddened by your presence in my room. I have never gone beyond the limits of polite behaviour with you even once. I have never shown the kind of excitement that any young man might be forgiven for showing in those moments. You might even have thought I was a man without any zest for life. It was not the thought of old world ideals like chastity that held me back. I could not even think of spoiling your purity. I liked you, just for the sheer pleasure of liking you."

[Récit avec dialogue enchâssé]

The shadow in the corner moved. Devi exploded, startling him, "If that is so... why are you so late? How many years is it since I returned from Pandavapuram with a small child? You never came in search of me, you did not even send a letter enquiring about my fate. And then you say that you liked me. Couldn't you at least have attempted to find out whether I had died of hunger? I waited so many days for you. I waited for a letter from you everyday. I went each evening to the railway station to wait for the train from the north. Affection..."

[Pensées rapportées <he> et discours rapporté <she>, style indirect libre avec indexicaux]

When he heard her spit out of the window, he was shocked. She had said...
He sat there stunned. She had waited? For whom? And why?
She said she had returned from Pandavapuram with a small child. When? When?
Was Devi trying to pay him back in the same coin he had offered her? Was she trying to trick him?

[Récit pur et simple = effet de réalité]

As he was struggling to clear his throat he saw Devi shut the door carefully and go away.

[Pensées rapportées]

He felt that more strands in the web of secrecy were being spun even as he thought about them. This plot of land, the house in the middle of it and the people in it were all sinking into the quicksand of secrets. This place was also getting to be both real and unreal at the same time, like Pandavapuram. Which was the truth? Which the lie? He lost himself in the question, unable to answer it.

NINE

['Monologue' intérieur, dont on voit que c'est plus exactement un dialogue intérieur]

Yes. I, can believe everything now. The thin fog between truth and fantasy has disappeared long since. Everything is true. His tired face and that unseen queer world of Pandavapuram which gave it birth and the Devi temple are all true. See, there he is in that room. He is probably leaning against the cot and dreaming. Last night I was able to give him a new face. I am satisfied. When my anger and bitterness against Kunhikuttettan boiled over, and caught me unawares, I felt like saying those things.

But now my thoughts are veering in another direction.
Did I not invoke him here for such a confrontation? Have I not longed to grind his, Kunhikuttettan's, every male hood into the dust under my feet?
Give me strength, O Goddess!

Vocabulaire, grammaire et stylistique de la Mâyâ

Pour comprendre la structure (ontologique) de ces jeux de miroirs entre le délire et la réalité, qui reproduit en littérature ce que les philosophes définissent comme l'illusion cosmique, c'est-à-dire le voile de Mâyâ, ma méthode est de porter attention à la structure (grammaticale) de l'énonciation, c'est-à-dire aux indexicaux, aux catégories de pensée et de langue (affection par exemple), aux formules stéréotypées (les fils qui trament la toile du secret par exemple) et à la stylistique du discours et du récit (dialogue, récit, pensées rapportées, etc.). La Mâyâ, du point de vue ontologique, ce sont des petits faits vrais enchâssés dans la fiction. Autrement dit, du point de vue grammatical, il n'y a pas de réalité ou de vérité absolue, c'est-à-dire indépendante d'un contexte d'énonciation. Toute réalité ou vérité est énoncée. L'ontologie (la réalité) est englobée dans la grammaire (l'énonciation).

"Devi..." his voice was tender. 'Dēvi…' ayāḷuṭe śabdaṃ ārdramāyirunnu.

It was not the thought of old world ideals like chastity that held me back. I could not even think of spoiling your purity. I liked you, just for the sheer pleasure of liking you.

pūrāṇaṅṅalil paṟayunna pātivratyattiṉṯe viśuddhi tuṭaṅṅiya saṅkalpaṅṅalonnumalla enne taṭuttuniṟttiyatụ. niṅṅale aśuddhamākkunnatinekkuṟiccụ enikkōrkkān vayyāyirunnu. enikku niṅṅale veṟute veṟute iṣṭamāyirunnu.

veṟute = in vain, uselessly, gratis, without payment.

J'avais de l'affection pour vous en vain en vain (sans être payé de retour).

You never came in search of me, you did not even send a letter enquiring about my fate. And then you say that you liked me.

vivaraṃ anvēṣiccukoṇṭụ oru kattupōluṃ ayaccilla. iṣṭamāṇatre !

I waited kāttirunnu so many days for you. I waited kāttirunnu for a letter kattụ from you everyday. I went each evening to the railway station to wait for the train from the north. Affection...

etranāl ñān niṅṅale kāttirunnu ! ōrō divasavuṃ niṅṅaluṭe kattinu vēṅṅi kāttirunnu. ōrō vaṅṅiyuṃ varunnatukāttụ nityavu vaikunnēraṃ ṟeyilvē sṯṯēṣanil kāvalkiṭannu. iṣṭamāṇatre…

kāttirikuka = expect, wait for, keep vigil

She had waited? For whom? And why? kāttirunnennō ? āre ? entinụ ?

Was Devi trying to pay him back in the same coin he had offered her? Was she trying to trick him?

dēvi ñān koṭutta atē nāṇayattil tiriccaṭikkukayāṇō ? enne kaḷippikkān nōkkukayāṇō ?

He felt that more strands in the web of secrecy were being spun even as he thought about them. This plot of land, the house in the middle of it and the people in it were all sinking into the quicksand of secrets. This place was also getting to be both real and unreal at the same time, like Pandavapuram. Which was the truth? Which the lie? He lost himself in the question, unable to answer it.

ōrkkuntōvuṃ rahasyaṅṅaḷuṭe valakkaṇṇikal koruttu kūṭunna tāyi ayālkkụ tōnni. toṭiyuṃ naṭuviluḷḷa koccuvīṭuṃ ati nakattuḷḷa manuṣyarumellāṃ rahasyaṅṅaḷuṭe catuppilēkkụ muṅṅipōkukayāṇụ. pāṇṭavapuratteppōletanne orēsamayaṃ yathārtthavuṃ ayathārtthavum [le vrai et le faux, le réel et l'irréel] ākukayāṇō iviṭaṃ. ētāṇụ uṇma. ētāṇụ poyụ ?

atu manassilākkānāvāte ayāl kuḻaṅṅi.

rahasyam = secret, secrecy

vala = net, network, snare, (spider's) web

kaṇṇi = a link of a chain, connection [un nœud de la toile d'areignée]

kuḻaṅṅuka = be perplexed or confused, be at a loss what to do

catuppụ = bog, swamp, marsh

Yes. I, can believe everything now. uvvụ. enikkippōl ellāṃ viśvasikkān kaḻiyuṃ.

viśvasikkuka = to believe, to trust

kaḻiyuka = to conclude, to be competent [Je dois me résoudre à croire tout cela]

The thin fog between truth and fantasy has disappeared long since. Everything is true.

saṅkalpattinuṃ satyattinumiṭaykkulla nērtta jalarēkhakal ennē māññukaḻiññu ! ellā satyamāṇụ.

His tired face and that unseen queer world of Pandavapuram which gave it birth and the Devi temple are all true.

pāṇḍavapuram enna nēril kkāṇātte vicitralōkavuṃ

Et le monde multicolore invisible en réalité qui a pour nom Pândavapuram

enna = (adj.) that which is called…

nērụ = truth, straitforwardness, real fact

kāṇā = (adj.) unseen < (verbe) will not be seen

vicitra = multicolore, étrange, curieux [fantasmagorique]